“[For black soldiers], but especially those out of the South, Germany was a breath of freedom. [They could] go where they wanted, eat where they wanted, and date whom they wanted, just like other people.”
Colin Powell about his tour of duty in West Germany in 1958, from My American Journey (1995)
"Ein Hauch von Freiheit" (Breath of Freedom)
December 16, 10:05pm CET on Arte
"Breath of Freedom: Black Soldiers and the Battle for Civil Rights" (narrated by Cuba Gooding, Jr.)
Premiers February 17, 8pm ET/PT on Smithsonian Channel
"Freed's enduring photos of march part of exhibit"
„Heldin des anderen Amerikas“
für Angela Davis, 1970–1973.
Scans and transcriptions of the following documents related to the relationship between Germany and the African-American Civil Rights Struggle are forthcoming:
MacDonald, Nancy and Dwight, The War's Greatest Scandal! The Story of Jim Crow in Uniform (March on Washington Movement, Spring 1943).
Meader Report, 22 November 1946, Special Senate Committee Investigating the National Defense Program, presented by George Meader, Chief Counsel.
Bolte, Charles and Louis Harris, Public Affairs Pamphlet No 128. Our Negro Veterans. Public Affairs Committee, 1947, p. 5, 6, 8.
Historical Division, HQ U.S. Army Europe, “Integration of Negro and White Troops in the U.S. Army Europe, 1952-54.“
Du Bois, W.E.B., German Transcript of a speech given at Humboldt University, East Berlin, October 28, 1958.
Mohrmann, Heinz, Manuscript of speech praising W.E.B. Du Bois at the award ceremony at Humboldt University in East Berlin, November 3, 1958.
King, Martin Luther, Jr., Sermon held at St. Mary's Church, East Berlin, September 13, 1964.
King, Martin Luther, Jr., Comments on John F. Kennedy at the Berlin Festival, West Berlin, September 13, 1964.
King, Martin Luther, Jr., Interview on his visit to Berlin, “Seine Waffe ist Gewaltlosigkeit,” B.Z., September 14, 1964.
King, Martin Luther, Jr., “Dr. Luther King: ‘Um Berlin dreht sich heute die Weltgeschichte’,” BILD-Zeitung, September 14, 1964.
Gesell Committee: The President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in the Armed Forces. “Final Report. Military Personnel Stationed Overseas,“ 1964.
Agit 883, “Für den Sieg im Volkskrieg: Solidarität mit den Black Panthers,“ 40, November 13, 1969.
Agit 883, “Black Panther ... Kommt nach Berlin,“ 42, November 27, 1969.
Agit 883, “Amis Raus aus West-Berlin,“ 61, May 22, 1970.
Agit 883, “'Wer wegen seines Kampfes inhaftert wird, ist ein politischer Gefangener' - Bobby Seale,“ in: 69, October 16, 1970.
Department of Defense, U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense, Manpower and Reserve Affairs, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, “U.S. Military Race Relations in Europe - September 1970.“
Congressional Record 92nd Congress, 1st Session, “Race Relations,“ March 9, 1971, 5650-51 and July 16, 1971, 25542-43.
Brandt, Willy, West German Chancellor, Speech on Racial Discrimination against U.S. Soldiers in West Germany, March 21, 1971.
NAACP, The Search for Military Justice. Report of an NAACP Inquiry Into the Problems of the Negro Servicemen in West Germany (New York, 1971).
Abernathy, Ralph, Sermon held at St. Mary's Church, East Berlin, September 28, 1971.