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“The thing that amazes me is that most guys [who served under me] had never been away from home. Never. And I never heard one of them say: 'when are we going home, when are we getting out of here'? And all of the V-mails they sent, I never saw any that said I am so sick of this stuff [and want to go home].“

Walter Patrice, WWII veteran, Poughkeepsie (NY)



New Documentary:
"Ein Hauch von Freiheit" (Breath of Freedom)
December 16, 10:05pm CET on Arte
> more


"Breath of Freedom: Black Soldiers and the Battle for Civil Rights" (narrated by Cuba Gooding, Jr.)
Premiers February 17, 8pm ET/PT on Smithsonian Channel
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"Freed's enduring photos of march part of exhibit"
> more


Article by
Sophie Lorenz:
„Heldin des anderen Amerikas“
Die DDR-Solidaritätsbewegung
für Angela Davis, 1970–1973.
> more

New Film:
"The West Point -
Vassar College Initiative"
> more

A Breath of Freedom
By Maria Höhn &
Martin Klimke
Palgrave Macmillan October 2010
> more



Online Publications

Maria Höhn:
- “The Black Panther Solidarity Committees and the Voice of the Lumpen,“ in: German Studies Review, XXXI, 1, February 2008, 133-154.

- “'We will Never Go Back to the Old Way Again': Germany in the African American Debate on Civil Rights,“ in: Central European History, vol. 41, no. 4 (December 2008), 605-637. (password-protected)

- “Bild und Wahrnehmung der GIs in der BRD 1945-1989,“ in: Werner Kremp, Martina Tunali, Wolfgang Tönnesmann, eds., Amerikaner in Rheinland-Pfalz. Alltagskulturelle Begegnungen, (Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2008), 127-146.

- “'When Negro-Soldiers Bring Home White Brides': Deutsche und amerikanische Debatten über die 'Mischehe' (1945-1967),“ in: Werner Kremp, Martina Tumalis, Wolfgang Tönnesmann eds., Amerikaner in Rheinland-Pfalz. Alltagskulturelle Begegnungen (Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2008), 147-164.

- "Ein Atemzug der Freiheit": Afro-amerikanische GIs, deutsche Frauen, und die Grenzen der Demokratie (1945-1968)," in Arnd Bauerkämpfer, et al., eds., Demokratiewunder. Transatlantische Mittler und die kulturelle Öffnung Westdeutschlands, 1945-1970 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2005), 104-128.

- “When Jim Crow Came to the German Heimat,“ in: GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2002), 85-108.


Martin Klimke:
- “The African American Civil Rights Struggle and Germany, 1945-1989,“ in: Bulletin of the German Historical Institute (Washington, D.C., Fall 2008).

- “Black Panther, die RAF und die Rolle der Black Panther-Solidaritätskomitees,” in: Wolfgang Kraushaar, ed., Die RAF und der linke Terrorismus (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2006), 562-582.


Official U.S. Army Publications:

- Henry I. Shaw and Ralph W. Donnelly, Blacks in the Marine Corps (Washington: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1976)

- Department of Defense, Black Americans in Defense of Our Nation (Washington, DC, 1985)

- Morris J. McGregor, Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940-1965 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1985)

- Earl F. Ziemke, The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany, 1944-1946 (W ashington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1990)

- United States, Black Americans in Defense of Our Nation (Washington, DC: Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Civilian Personnel Policy/Equal Opportunity, Dept. of Defense, 1985) / 1991 Edition (incl. more than 200 images, text version)


- Sophie Lorenz, "Heldin des anderen Amerikas." Die DDR-Solidaritätsbewegung für Angela Davis, 1970–1973, in: Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History, Online-Ausgabe, 10 (2013), H. 1.

- Heide Fehrenbach, Black Occupation Children and the Devolution of the Nazi Racial State, in: After the Nazi Racial State Difference and Democracy in Germany and Europe, Rita Chin, Heide Fehrenbach, Geoff Eley, and Atina Grossmann eds. (Ann Arbor, MI, 2009), 30-54.

- Tim Holbert, A Tradition of Sacrifice: African-American Service in World War II, in: World War II Chronicle, Summer 2003

- Werner Kremp, Nachbar Amerika: Amerikaner in Rheinland-Pfalz, Blätter zum Land, 2/2009 (Mainz: Landeszentrale für Politische Bildung Rheinland-Pfalz, 2009)

- KD Wolff, “'Amis' and 'Naner': With Americans in Hesse since 1945,“ in: Gundula Bavendamm, Amerikaner in Hessen: Eine besondere Beziehung im Wandel der Zeit (Hanau: Cocon-Verlag, 2008)


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