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“[For black soldiers], but especially those out of the South, Germany was a breath of freedom. [They could] go where they wanted, eat where they wanted, and date whom they wanted, just like other people.”

Colin Powell about his tour of duty in West Germany in 1958, from My American Journey (1995)



New Documentary:
"Ein Hauch von Freiheit" (Breath of Freedom)
December 16, 10:05pm CET on Arte
> more


"Breath of Freedom: Black Soldiers and the Battle for Civil Rights" (narrated by Cuba Gooding, Jr.)
Premiers February 17, 8pm ET/PT on Smithsonian Channel
> more


"Freed's enduring photos of march part of exhibit"
> more


Article by
Sophie Lorenz:
„Heldin des anderen Amerikas“
Die DDR-Solidaritätsbewegung
für Angela Davis, 1970–1973.
> more

New Film:
"The West Point -
Vassar College Initiative"
> more

A Breath of Freedom
By Maria Höhn &
Martin Klimke
Palgrave Macmillan October 2010
> more



Online Publications

Maria Höhn:
- “The Black Panther Solidarity Committees and the Voice of the Lumpen,“ in: German Studies Review, XXXI, 1, February 2008, 133-154.

- “'We will Never Go Back to the Old Way Again': Germany in the African American Debate on Civil Rights,“ in: Central European History, vol. 41, no. 4 (December 2008), 605-637. (password-protected)

- “Bild und Wahrnehmung der GIs in der BRD 1945-1989,“ in: Werner Kremp, Martina Tunali, Wolfgang Tönnesmann, eds., Amerikaner in Rheinland-Pfalz. Alltagskulturelle Begegnungen, (Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2008), 127-146.

- “'When Negro-Soldiers Bring Home White Brides': Deutsche und amerikanische Debatten über die 'Mischehe' (1945-1967),“ in: Werner Kremp, Martina Tumalis, Wolfgang Tönnesmann eds., Amerikaner in Rheinland-Pfalz. Alltagskulturelle Begegnungen (Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2008), 147-164.

- "Ein Atemzug der Freiheit": Afro-amerikanische GIs, deutsche Frauen, und die Grenzen der Demokratie (1945-1968)," in Arnd Bauerkämpfer, et al., eds., Demokratiewunder. Transatlantische Mittler und die kulturelle Öffnung Westdeutschlands, 1945-1970 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2005), 104-128.

- “When Jim Crow Came to the German Heimat,“ in: GIs and Fräuleins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2002), 85-108.


Martin Klimke:
- “The African American Civil Rights Struggle and Germany, 1945-1989,“ in: Bulletin of the German Historical Institute (Washington, D.C., Fall 2008).

- “Black Panther, die RAF und die Rolle der Black Panther-Solidaritätskomitees,” in: Wolfgang Kraushaar, ed., Die RAF und der linke Terrorismus (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2006), 562-582.


Official U.S. Army Publications:

- Henry I. Shaw and Ralph W. Donnelly, Blacks in the Marine Corps (Washington: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1976)

- Department of Defense, Black Americans in Defense of Our Nation (Washington, DC, 1985)

- Morris J. McGregor, Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940-1965 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1985)

- Earl F. Ziemke, The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany, 1944-1946 (W ashington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1990)

- United States, Black Americans in Defense of Our Nation (Washington, DC: Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Civilian Personnel Policy/Equal Opportunity, Dept. of Defense, 1985) / 1991 Edition (incl. more than 200 images, text version)


- Sophie Lorenz, "Heldin des anderen Amerikas." Die DDR-Solidaritätsbewegung für Angela Davis, 1970–1973, in: Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History, Online-Ausgabe, 10 (2013), H. 1.

- Heide Fehrenbach, Black Occupation Children and the Devolution of the Nazi Racial State, in: After the Nazi Racial State Difference and Democracy in Germany and Europe, Rita Chin, Heide Fehrenbach, Geoff Eley, and Atina Grossmann eds. (Ann Arbor, MI, 2009), 30-54.

- Tim Holbert, A Tradition of Sacrifice: African-American Service in World War II, in: World War II Chronicle, Summer 2003

- Werner Kremp, Nachbar Amerika: Amerikaner in Rheinland-Pfalz, Blätter zum Land, 2/2009 (Mainz: Landeszentrale für Politische Bildung Rheinland-Pfalz, 2009)

- KD Wolff, “'Amis' and 'Naner': With Americans in Hesse since 1945,“ in: Gundula Bavendamm, Amerikaner in Hessen: Eine besondere Beziehung im Wandel der Zeit (Hanau: Cocon-Verlag, 2008)


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